ΟΙ ΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΤΕΣ ΠΟΥ

ΣΥΜΒΑΛΛΟΥΝ ΕΝΕΡΓΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΠΙΤΥΧΙΑ



The Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is designed to simulate the complete hydrologic processes of dendritic watershed systems. The software includes many traditional hydrologic analysis procedures such as event infiltration, unit hydrographs, and hydrologic routing. HEC-HMS also includes procedures necessary for continuous simulation including evapo-transpiration, snowmelt, and soil moisture accounting. Advanced capabilities are also provided for gridded runoff simulation using the linear quasi-distributed runoff transform (ModClark). Supplemental analysis tools are provided for parameter estimation, depth-area analysis, flow forecasting, erosion and sediment transport, and nutrient water quality.

The software features a completely integrated work environment including a database, data entry utilities, computation engine, and results reporting tools. A graphical user interface allows the user seamless movement between the different parts of the software. Simulation results are stored in HEC-DSS (Data Storage System) and can be used in conjunction with other software for studies of water availability, urban drainage, flow forecasting, future urbanization impact, reservoir spillway design, flood damage reduction, floodplain regulation, and systems operation.

Watershed Physical Description

The physical representation of a watershed is accomplished with a basin model. Hydrologic elements are connected in a dendritic network to simulate runoff processes. Available elements are: subbasin, reach, junction, reservoir, diversion, source, and sink. Computation proceeds from upstream elements in a downstream direction.

An assortment of different methods is available to simulate infiltration losses. Options for event modeling include initial constant, SCS curve number, exponential, Green Ampt, and Smith Parlange. The one-layer deficit constant method can be used for simple continuous modeling. The three-layer soil moisture accounting method can be 
used for continuous modeling of complex infiltration and evapotranspiration environments. Gridded methods are available for the deficit constant, Green Ampt, SCS curve number, and soil moisture accounting methods. Canopy and surface components can also be added when needed to represent interception and capture processes.

Seven methods are included for transforming excess precipitation into surface runoff. Unit hydrograph methods include the Clark, Snyder, and SCS techniques. User-specified unit hydrograph or s-graph ordinates can also be used. The modified Clark method (ModClark), is a linear quasi-distributed unit hydrograph method that can be 
used with gridded meteorologic data. An implementation of the kinematic wave method with multiple planes and channels is also included.

Five methods are included for representing baseflow contributions to subbasin outflow. The recession method gives an exponentially decreasing baseflow from a single event or multiple sequential events. The constant monthly method can work well for continuous simulation. The linear reservoir method conserves mass by routing infiltrated precipitation to the channel. The nonlinear Boussinesq method provides a response similar to the recession method but the parameters can be estimated from measurable qualities of the watershed.

A total of six hydrologic routing methods are included for simulating flow in open channels. Routing with no attenuation can be modeled with the lag method. The traditional Muskingum method is included along with the straddle stagger method for simple approximations of attenuation. The modified Puls method can be used to 
model a reach as a series of cascading, level pools with a user-specified storage-discharge relationship.
Channels with trapezoidal, rectangular, triangular, or circular cross sections can be modeled with the kinematic wave or Muskingum-Cunge methods. Channels with overbank areas can be modeled with the Muskingum-Cunge method and an 8-point cross section. Additionally, channel losses can also be included in the routing. The constant loss method can be added to any routing method while the percolation method can be used only with 
the modified Puls or Muskingum-Cunge methods.

Water impoundments can also be represented. Lakes are usually described by a user-entered storage-discharge relationship. Reservoirs can be simulated by describing the physical spillway and outlet structures. Pumps can 
also be included as necessary to simulate interior flood area. Control of the pumps can be linked to water depth 
in the collection pond and, optionally, the stage in the main channel.

Diversion structures can also be represented. Available methods include a user-specified function, lateral weir, pump station, observed diversion flows.

Meteorology Description


Meteorologic data analysis is performed by the meteorologic and includes shortwave radiation, precipitation, evapo-transpiration, and snowmelt. Not all of these components are required for all simulations. Simple event simulations require only precipitation, while continuous simulation additionally requires evapo-transpiration. Generally, snowmelt is only required when working with watersheds in cold climates. Selection of the Priestley-Taylor method for evapo-transpiration requires one of the shortwave radiation methods.

Four different methods for analyzing historical precipitation are included. The user-specified hyetograph method 
is for precipitation data analyzed outside the program. The gage weights method uses an unlimited number of recording and non-recording gages. The Thiessen technique is one possibility for determining the weights. The inverse distance method addresses dynamic data problems. An unlimited number of recording and non-recording gages can be used to automatically proceed when missing data is encountered. The gridded precipitation method uses radar rainfall data.

Four different methods for producing synthetic precipitation are included. The frequency storm method uses statistical data to produce balanced storms with a specific exceedance probability. Sources of supporting statistical data include U.S. Department of Commerce, National Weather Service (NWS) Technical Paper 40 (May 1961) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Atlas 2 and Atlas 14. The standard project storm method implements the regulations for precipitation when estimating the standard project flood which is described in USACE, EM 1110-2-1411 (March 1965). The SCS hypothetical storm method implements the primary precipitation distributions for design analysis using Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) criteriaTechncial Release 55 (June 1986). The user-specified hyetograph method can be used with a synthetic hyetograph resulting from analysis outside the program.

Potential evapo-transpiration can be computed using monthly average values. There is also an implementation of the Priestley Taylor method. A gridded version of the Priestley Taylor method is also available where the required parameters of temperature and solar radiation are specified on a gridded basis. A user-specified method can be used with data developed from analysis outside the program.

Snowmelt can be included for tracking the accumulation and melt of a snowpack. A temperature index method is available that dynamically computes the melt rate based on current atmospheric conditions and past conditions in the snowpack; this improves the representation of the "ripening" process. The concept of cold content is incorporated to account for the ability of a cold snowpack to freeze liquid water entering the pack from rainfall. 
A subbasin can be represented with elevation bands or grid cells.

The Priestley Taylor evapo-transpiration method requires the net radiation, which is specified with the shortwave radiation method. A number of conceptual and physically-based shortwave radiation methods are planned for a future release. Currently, there is a specified method for time-series data and a gridded method.

Hydrologic Simulation

The time span of a simulation is controlled by control specifications. Control specifications include a starting date and time, ending date and time, and a time interval.

A simulation run is created by combining a basin model, meteorologic model, and control specifications. Run options include a precipitation or flow ratio, capability to save all basin state information at a point in time, and ability to begin a simulation run from previously saved state information.

Simulation results can be viewed from the basin map. Global and element summary tables include information on peak flow, total volume, and other variables. A time-series table and graph are available for elements. Results 
from multiple elements and multiple simulation runs can also be viewed. All graphs and tables can be printed.


Parameter Estimation

Most parameters for methods included in subbasin and reach elements can be estimated automatically using optimization trials. Observed discharge must be available for at least one element before optimization can begin. Parameters at any element upstream of the observed flow location can be estimated. Seven different objective functions are available to estimate the goodness-of-fit between the computed results and observed discharge.
Two different search methods can be used to minimize the objective function. Constraints can be imposed to restrict the parameter space of the search method.


Analyzing Simulations

Analysis tools are designed to work with simulation runs to provide additional information or processing. Currently, the only tool is the depth-area analysis tool. It works with simulation runs that have a meteorologic model using 
the frequency storm method. Given a selection of elements, the tool automatically adjusts the storm area and generates peak flows represented by the correct storm areas.


Forecasting Future Flows

The basin model includes features designed to increase the efficiency of producing forecasts of future flows in a real-time operation mode. Zones can be created that group subbasins together on the basis of similar hydrologic conditions or regional characteristics. Zones can be assigned separately for loss rate, transform, and baseflow. The forecast alternative is a type of simulation that uses a basin model and meteorologic model in combination 
with control parameters to forecast future flows. Parameter values can be adjusted by zone and blending can be applied at elements with observed flow.


Sediment and Water Quality

Optional components in the basin model can be used to include sediment and water quality in an analysis. 
Surface erosion can be computed at subbasin elements using the MUSLE approach for rural areas or the build-up/wash-off approach for urban settings. Channel erosion, deposition, and sediment transport can be added to reach elements while sediment settling can be included in reservoir elements. Nutrient boundary conditions (nitrogen and phosphorus) can be added to source and subbasin elements. Nutrient transformations and 
transport can be added to reach and reservoir elements.


GIS Connection

The power and speed of the program make it possible to represent watersheds with hundreds of hydrologic elements. Traditionally, these elements would be identified by inspecting a topographic map and manually identifying drainage boundaries. While this method is effective, it is prohibitively time consuming when the watershed will be represented with many elements. A geographic information system (GIS) can use elevation 
data and geometric algorithms to perform the same task much more quickly. A GIS companion product has been developed to aid in the creation of basin models for such projects. That companion product is Geospatial Hydrologic Modeling Extension (HEC-GeoHMS), and can be used to create basin and meteorologic models for use with the program.